bastide francescas

The history of Francescas

Francescas is a frankish territory ('Escas' is roughly hectare) - so land of the franks. (Michel Gardere)
(Roles Gascons, transcribed and published by Francisque Michel: 1290-1307 - Francisque Michel, Charles Bémont - 1906)

977-1059: The southern border of the city of Nitiobroges (this will be later Agen and the diocese until the eleventh century) would have followed, from west to east, a line from the source of the Advance to reach, by Réaup, The Fréchou , the Hitte, Francescas, Astaffort, the Garonne to Auvillars.
Latin inscriptions in Aquitaine (ILA): Nitiobroges (Authors: Brieuc Fages, Louis Maurin)
1013: The Lordship of Francescas was given to the abbey of Saint-Pierre Condom by Hugues de Gascogne, Bishop of Agen in 1013, hereditary Duke of Gascony. Since condom was not yet erected into a bishopric, it is therefore the abbots, who were Lords of Francescas. So there is a church on that date in the agglomeration and cultivated land, which depend.
1100-1200: The archdeaconry of Bruilhois included in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries also the Viscount Bruilhois cities or towns of Auvillars, Dunes, Sistels Astafort, Barbonvielle La Montjoie Francescas Ligardes, The Roumieu, Caussens, Béraut, Cassaigne Condom, The Ressingle, Montreal, Fourcès, Sainte Maure, Saint Pé Saint Simon, Sos, Gueyze, Meylan, St. Pau, Réaup, Boussès, Durance, Saint Julien, Ambrus, Xaintrailles, Thouars, Feugarolles, Bruch, Lavardac, Nerac, Mézin etc.. (Scientific Congress of France - 1862)

1211: there was a prior in Francescas and consequently there must have been a monastery.
(History of the Lordship of Condom and organization of justice in this city in 1902 by Joseph Gardere)
In 1205, Geraud de Lomagne, Lord of Fimarcon, received by his wife Seguis Lomagne, combined with Centule de Bigorre, Earl of Astarac, which Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, inféoda September 3, 1230, all rights of ownership and dominion over the castles of Saint-Orens, Caussens of Béraut of Francescas and Caulazon, and the land of Fimarcon, except the tribute that William Astanove was obliged to do for him regarding what he held in the country of Fimarcon.
1243: It's later in the same year that Raymond VII of Toulouse gave to the Earl of Centulle Astarac the property owned in Saint-Orens, Caussens, Béraut, Caulasou and Francescas, localities in which the abbey of Condom also owned considerable areas. (Revue de Gascogne 1880)
1254: Several papal bulls of Innocent IV, in particular, that of March 6, 1254, prohibited the sale of Condom, in case of death, their properties within the abbey to the Templars, not only in the town of Condom, but also in places of Larressingle, Cassagne, Francescas and others.
In 1264, we find the first mention reporting a bailiwick in Francescas, but this act is evidenced only in 1343.
According to Father Barrere, Abbot of Condom, Auger Anduran and the king Eduard I, concluded in 1285 a paréage, after which customs are granted to the city; it had four consuls.
In 1286, Philippe le Bel is king of France. The trustee of the Abbey of Condom recognized to held from the noble King Edward I of England the "Castrum" of Francescas( November 16, 1286).
1341 (June 28). The places Boulogne, Francescas and Fourcès, will be owned by the family Galard, under letters of King Edward II of England.
It was in 1396, when calling the Lords Gascons to the King of France against the Prince of Wales, that Charles V made a donation of various lands and lordships, including the city of Francescas, to the Count of Armagnac
The village is formed around the church, the residence of l' abbot of Condom and the arcades of the Center Place; it developped progressively, with some ilots in the north-east introducing a division in plots, which was regular of the end of the Middle Ages.
The part of the evêque of Condom is sold by auction in 1576,
and bought back in 1582 by the lord of Lasserre, Jean Paul d' Esparbes de Lussan; the residence of this last was near the door of
Larque in the south, succeeding probably the ancient home
episcopal. L' agglomeration was locked up in fortifications,
surrounded with moat, and opened by 4 doors (of Claret, the Well,
from Larque, New or from Ligardes); a citadel is mentionned in
the city at the end of the 16th century. Two houses for the defense are destroyed in 1590 for the security of the inhabitants.
In middle of the 16th siecle up to 1621, the situation of Francescas in the middle of religious war struggles, walls are always repaired.
The door of Larque is rebuilt during the 1st quarter of the 17th century. The paving of streets and the alignment appear in local decisions of the middle of the 17th century. By 1660, the door of Claret is in ruin; in years 1770-1780, the fortifications which do not serve any more, are definitely demolished and another door is destroyed.
Some houses were rebuilt in the 2nd half of 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century; the extension of the village is made along roads, notably in the north and in east.

map of Francescas de Cassini 1748

map de Francescas by
Cesar-Francois Cassini III

Monuments:
English Bastide
Church: portal of the 14th century, bell tower, turn, and mosaic of the XVIIth century.
Castle of Saint Barthelemy - Mill of Viaumont
Church of Saint Ourens or St Orens: the church has the name of the evêque Orens, first evêque from Auch in the Ve century.
The «Home of THE HIRE»: Médievale home leant on the urban bulwark. Harmed at the end of the Middle Ages, the reamenagée in the 16th or in the 17th century.

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